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2015 Project Report

2015项目报告

Summary of 2015 Planting Progress

2015年项目造林进展简述

Three new plots of forests were planted in 2015, all of which are located in Bagatala Sumu, KeerqinzuoyiHouqi, 60 kilometers south of Tongliao, covering an area of 138.5 hectares (2077 Mu).

2015年百万植树计划新增林地三块,均位于科尔沁左翼后旗巴嘎塔拉苏木,距通辽市60公里,总面积2077亩。

In view of local circumstances such as little rainfall and frequent sandstorms, MTP decided to experiment with an integrative method of controlling sand movement by planting a mix of trees and shrubs in 2015. Caragana microphylla Lam is the selected shrub species, a native shrub species in Inner Mongolia. It forms a very dynamic protection system with its flourishing branches above the ground and extended roots beneath. It provides a solid foundation for soil development and restoration of vegetation diversity. In addition to its significant biological value, Caragana microphylla Lam is also an ideal grazing plant. Its fast growth makes it tolerant for herding, therefore maintaining the balance between biological restoration and economic benefits.

根据当地降水少,风沙大等实际情况,项目组开始尝试乔灌混交及灌木纯林的综合治沙方式。选取的灌木品种为小叶锦鸡儿(Caragana microphylla Lam),是内蒙古草原古草原具有代表性的本土灌木物种,具有发达的根系和茂密的枝条,能为土壤发育和植物群落多样性的恢复提供重要保障,同时也是良好的饲用灌木,对放牧有较好的承受能力,能够在有限的范围内保证生态恢复和经济发展的平衡。

From 2007 till now, the MTP has planted over 1,712,000 trees, covering an area of 1516 Hectares. The tree species planted include Poplars, Pines, Maples and Yellow horns.

从2007年至今,百万植树计划已累计种植171.2多万棵树,占地面积22,743亩。造林树种以杨树(70%)为主,还种有樟子松(25%)、五角枫(1%)和文冠果(4%)等。

2015 Annual Forest Investigation

2015 年度林地调查

The Million Tree Project places an important focus on supervision and surveys of the trees after planting in order to ensure consistent ecological and environmental benefits. The 2015 investigation sampled 7,900 trees in 274 random spots in 25 forest plots and took us 31 days from September to November to complete. The general survival rate of all MTP forests is 67.92%.

The graph below shows the survival rates of the planting sites we have afforested since the beginning of the project in the past four years.

2015年9月-11月,我们对2007年至2015年期间栽植的25块林地逐一进行抽样调查。历时31天,测量样地274块,调查总计7900棵。调查结果显示,2015年度全林地保存率均值为67.92%,不同年份种植林地的保存率近四年变化情况如下图:

Over 7 to 8 years, significant impact is observed in terms of vegetation restoration and ecosystem reconstruction in the forests planted in 2007 and 2008. Flourishing tree canopies together with diverse undergrowth provide shelter for different types of organisms, while benefiting soil enrichment and water conservation. The following images show the forest growth in different years.

百万植树计划非常注重对林木的后期监控和调查,以确保林木发挥相应的生态效益和环境效益。在最早的2007及2008年种植的林地内,现已枝繁叶茂,郁郁成林,且植被层次多样化,林下植被比例高,为各类生物提供多样化的栖所,且利于土壤发育与水分涵养。经过近八年的时间,林地生态系统的恢复和重建已呈现出较为明显的成效。下图是2007-2008年林地在不同年份林地样貌的对比图。

2015 Ecological Investigation

生态调查结果简报

Since 2013, the Million Tree Project has been planting trees mainly in places with harsh environmental conditions, especially places with sparse vegetation and covered with widespread moving and semi-moving sand dunes. Our objective is to gradually immobilize the moving sand dunes and rehabilitate the ecosystem through restoration of native vegetation by afforestation.

百万植树计划项目自2013年起,主要造林地属于立地条件较为严峻的区域,植被稀疏,流动、半流动沙丘遍布。因此在这些区域,项目的首要考虑是通过造林封育促进原生植被恢复,达成“逐步固定流动沙丘,重建生态系统”的经营目的。

Classification of Desertification Degree, cited from ‘China’s Deserts, Desertified Lands, Desert Plants’, China Agricultural Science and Technology Press, published in 2013. 沙漠化土地分类标准引用自《中国沙漠、沙地、沙生植物》,中国农业科学技术出版社,2013.

Meanwhile, we started to notice that the very few trees growing on these plots looked more like shrubs without strong tree trunks, and other than growing upwards, growing horizontally due to the frequent wind drafts and the limitation of water resources, which means that the height and DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) would not necessarily increase as trees grew older, and would not necessarily have direct relevance to the overall vegetation restoration and ecosystem rehabilitation. Therefore, in 2014, the project began to focus on ecological investigation, directing its efforts to understanding restoration of the overall ecosystem and biodiversity. The ecological investigation includes three main parts: species diversity, vegetation structure, and vegetation coverage.

2015年对林地的日常走访中发现,2013年开始的造林地由于水资源的限制以及强劲风蚀的折损,林木灌木化的现象持续加深(树型无明显的主干、除向上生长外也具有横向生长的趋势),意味着树高、胸径等生长数据,不一定会随树龄而有显著的增加,和林地整体的恢复动态也不一定有直接的关联性。因此项目从2014年开始针对生态林地进行生态调查,期望藉此了解林地整体生态系统和生物多样性的恢复情况。生态调查内容包括物种多样性、植被结构、植被覆盖程度等三大部份。

The ecological survey of Year 2015 sampled 57 spots on 6 plots, two of which we sampled in 2014, and the other four were under initial survey. All of the six plots are located at Zhaogensumo Gacha and Bianjie Gacha, Horqin Left Back Banner.

2015年生态调查地块位于科尔沁左翼后旗的召根苏莫嘎查及边界嘎查的六块林地,其中两块林地为第二年调查,四块林地为初次调查,共计57个样区。

The preliminary results show that there are a total of 36 types of grass and shrub species in the forests. The biodiversity of 2013 and 2014 forests is twice as much as that of the forest planted in 2015. The vegetation coverage of the initial investigation plots is only 12% with simple structures, and the sand dune is still semi-moving; whereas, the vegetation coverage of 2013-1, 2014-2 forests has increased to 33%, indicating that forest restoration has proven effective, and the semi-moving sand dunes are gradually transitioning to semi-stable sand dunes.

初步成果显示,调查录入的草灌木物种共计36种,2013年和2014年林地内的物种多样性较高,林地内物种数是2015年新造林地的两倍以上。植被情况方面,初次调查地块的植被的植被覆盖率仅12%上下、组成结构单一,仍属于半流动沙丘;然而进入第二年调查的2013-1、2014-2林地,植被覆盖率较去年增长,稳定至33%上下,说明林地恢复已初见成效,正逐渐由半流动沙丘过渡至半固定沙丘状态

The following images show the contrast in vegetation appearance in different years on the sand dunes near the forest planted in 2013. More shrubs and grasses are seen in the picture taken in 2015 than the one taken in 2014. This is called the integrative effect of Seed Accumulation (The growing saplings are working as windbreak to catch more seeds), Nursing Effect (Trees have an effect on improving soil moisture content, temperature and other microclimate conditions, inducing sprouting and growth of other vegetation), and Islands of Fertility (The roots of shrubs improve the nitrogen level in the soil, accelerate the accumulation of organic matter and vitalize micro-organisms), all of which could not have been achieved without tree planting. The native vegetation is in the process of recuperating and we are confident that in the long term we can achieve the goal to restore the ecosystem and stabilize the moving sand dunes.

下图展示的是2013年种植林地附近的沙丘,在不同年份的植被覆盖情况,可以看到,较2014年而言,2015年沙丘上及林木间都已有灌木和草本植物开始生长。这是通过种植苗木产生的种源聚集(Seed accumulator,苗木形成屏障风阻,拦截植物种子)、抚育效应(Nursing effect,改善土壤含水率、土壤温度等微物候条件,诱使其他植被的萌发与生长)和沃岛效应(Islands of fertility,灌木根系改善土壤含氮量、加速有机质累积、增加微生物活性)等综合因素作用而成,此地块的原生植物正在逐步恢复,最终有望达成重建生态系统,固定流动沙丘的长远目标。

见树又见林。通过日后持续进行逐年监测,将会有助于更全面地了解林地整体的生态恢复情形。

Vegetation condition in 2013 forest, taken on 2014.7.16

Vegetation condition in 2013 forest, taken on 2014.7.16

Vegetation condition in 2013 forest, taken on 2015.7.3

Vegetation condition in 2013 forest, taken on 2015.7.3

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