• 内蒙古通辽市

    Tongliao, Inner Mongolia

    since 2007

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  • 项目背景 Background

    由于气候变化、毁林开荒、过度放牧和开垦农田,农田会变得不适于耕种,容易受到严重的侵蚀从而引发沙尘暴,这就是土地荒漠化的过程。联合国粮农组织的数据显示,中国超过30%正在遭受着沙漠化,这影响到了四亿人的生活。

    在内蒙古通辽市,气候变化和土地开垦使得沙漠快速扩张。每年春季,沙尘暴会影响到内蒙古及其周边地区,损害当地的基础设施、影响人们的正常生活。百万植树计划希望通过重新植树造林,让土地恢复生机并且减少沙尘暴的发生。

     

    As a result of climate change, deforestation, livestock overgrazing, and intensive agriculture, once-arable land is now rapidly becoming dry and fallow, susceptible to heavy erosion and, consequently, dust storms. This process is called desertification. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), desertification occurs in over 30% of China's territory and affects the lives of 400 million people.

    In Tongliao Municipality, Inner Mongolia, this lethal combination of the climate change and land exploitation has resulted in expanding desertification at an astonishing rate. Sandstorms strike Inner Mongolia and the surrounding areas each spring, destroying local infrastructures and affecting people's life. This project aims to reforest the area in order to revitalize the land and block the sandstorms.

  • 项目目标  Project Objective

    内蒙古项目始于2007年,致力于通过植树造林抵抗沙漠化、恢复土地生产力。目前,在各方的支持和努力下,百万植树计划在2012年已经实现了第一个“百万棵树”,在2016年完成了第二个“百万棵树”的目标。在当地的项目主要包括三个部分:选择树种、植树、养护与监测。
    The Inner Mongolia project began in 2007 with the express goal of planting one million trees, in order to counter rapid desertification and restore the land in Tongliao through afforestation. After years of dedicated work, MTP finished planting its first million thriving trees in 2012, and continuing into 2016, a second million trees were planted. The Million Tree Project implements a 3-step process: 'selecting tree species', 'planting trees' and 'maintaining and monitoring the site'.

    1. 选择树种  Selecting Tree Species

    根据当地林业专家和美国俄亥冈州立大学林业学院的意见,考虑到当地的自然环境,百万植树计划选择在通辽种植杂交杨树、樟子松、文冠果、小叶锦鸡儿等树种。

    With input from both local forestry staff and experts from the Oregon State University Forestry Department, MTP chose four plant species that are well-adapted for local environmental conditions.

    杂交杨树

    Hybrid poplar

    Populus simonii

    能适应当地土壤和气候环境,并吸收大量二氧化碳。杂交杨树有很好的固碳效果,并且在干旱的环境中生长不需要消耗大量的水。

    Adapts to local soil and climate and absorbs large amounts of carbon dioxide.

    Hybrid Poplars are particularly effective at sequestering carbon and do not require large amounts of water to thrive, which is important in this desertified climate.

    樟子松

    Mongolian Scots Pine

    Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv.

    樟子松为常绿树种,根系发达,生命周期长。樟子松耐寒、防风、抗冻,在抵御沙化方面有很好的效果。

    The Mongolian Scots Pine is an evergreen plant with strong roots and a long lifespan. A drought-, wind-, and cold-resistant plant, this pine species is perfect for fighting desertification.

    文冠果

    Yellowhorn

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia

    文冠果的种子含有相当于大豆所含两倍的油,可用于烹饪和工业用途。文冠果在该地区有成功种植的悠久历史,并将会带来生态和经济效益的双丰收。

    Yellowhorn seeds contain twice the amount of oil as soybeans, and can be used for both cooking and industrial purposes. This species has a long history of successful growth in the region and will produce both economic and ecological benefits.

    小叶锦鸡儿

    Littleleaf Peashrub

    Caragana microphylla Lam

    小叶锦鸡儿是具有代表性的本土灌木物种,对荒漠化严重的干旱半干旱地区有重要的生态价值,能在有限的范围内保证生态恢复和经济发展的平衡。

    The Littleleaf Peashrub is a typical local shrub and is crucial to arid and semi-arid ecosystems. As a shrub, it strikes an excellent balance between biological restoration and economic development.

    2. 植树  Planting the Trees

    Volunteers planting trees together on a planting trip in Inner Mongolia

    每年百万植树计划的志愿者们到通辽参加植树行。志愿者们学习如何植树,并和当地员工、农民们一起给树苗安新家。在树苗生长初期,当地农民会间种作物,如大豆、小米、西瓜来获取额外的收入,这不仅能提高生物多样性,还可以给树木提供更多的营养。

    当地两位全职的林业管理人员负责评估土壤质量、树苗的发育情况和间作措施等,当地农户也参与到植树的过程中。除此之外,百万植树计划还和美国俄勒冈州立大学林业学院植被管理研究合作开发中心开展紧密合作。

     

    Every year, MTP volunteers travel to Tongliao for our planting trip. Volunteers learn how to plant trees and work with our on-site staff as well as with local farmers to give these saplings a new home and their best chance at survival. While the trees are in their infancy, local farmers are encouraged to interplant crops like beans, millet, or watermelons for extra income; this increases both biodiversity and the amount of available nutrients for the trees.

    Our full-time forestry managers evaluate soil quality, the viability of the saplings, intercropping practices, and local community support before and after planting. Additionally, MTP also collaborates with the Department of Forest Science's Nursery Technology Cooperative at Oregon State University, USA.

     

    关于志愿者和植树行的更多信息,请点击此处了解。

    Find out more about how to become a volunteer and join one of our planting trips here.

    3. 养护与监测  Maintaining and Monitoring the Site

    百万植树计划会对树木进行长期的养护与监测:志愿者帮助修建树枝,以促进树木的生长; 项目组和库伦旗团委合作,让当地的农民和学生参与到监测和养护树木的环节里。在树木成材后,当地的农民将拥有林地的林权。林地调查是监测过程的重要环节,主要是由工作人员实地调查以及无人机技术完成的。通过每年收集数据,百万植树计划能够更好地评估项目的进展情况,例如成活率、降雨量、覆盖率、沙漠化程度、生物多样性、植被结构以及植物群的高度、直径、树冠大小,这些数据可以帮助项目组分析林地的长期长势。

     

    MTP carried out long-term monitoring of forest plots: volunteers can also help to prune and trim the trees, which is critical to promote strong and healthy growth; MTP also works with the Youth League of Kulun Qi to engage local students and farmers to help monitor and maintain the trees. Farmers are licensed to harvest trees that have reached maturity on the condition that they replant on the harvested plot. Forest surveys are a major component of monitoring the reforestation efforts. These are conducted by drone technology as well as by in-field investigations led by our forestry experts. Compiling reams of data year after year allows MTP to evaluate metrics of progress like survival rate, rainfall, coverage, degree of desertification, biodiversity, vegetation structure, height and diameter, and crown size of flora. From these data measurements, MTP can analyze long-term trends in forest health and growth.

     

    关于志愿者和生态调查的更多信息,请点击此处了解。

    Find out more about become a volunteer and how to get involved in one of these ecological investigations here.

  • 长期监测 Long-Term Monitoring

    百万植树计划对林地进行长期的监测,以观测林地的生长状况。2007、2008林地是百万植树计划的第一片林地,位于内蒙古通辽市,主要种植樟子松和杨树。自08年开始,项目组持续性监测该林地的生长状况,在2019年对该林地进行了全方位的调查,包括树木存活率、密度、树高、地径、胸径、生物多样性以及郁闭度等等。下方是08至19年之间该林地的变化对比图,以及对2019年调查报告的部分展示。

    MTP carried out long-term monitoring of forest plots. Here‘s a look at data from our oldest forest plot. Located in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, this plot was first planted with Mongolian scots pine and hybrid poplars in 2007 and this planting continued into 2008. Since then, we've monitored the growth and progress of the trees every year. Some of the data we have captured over time is shown below.

  • 200708林地调查报告

    200708 forest investigation report

    200708的林木个体生长基本抵达峰值,进入稳定期,整体上达到完整的森林结构标准,内部的土壤环境和生物环境都在改善,从覆盖度到物种类型已经完全脱离流动沙地阶段,处于半固定沙地阶段。并且有明显向固定沙地阶段过渡的趋势。0708林地在改善生态环境、减少风蚀方面起到了十分积极的作用。

    The growth of trees in 0708 plot basically reached the peak and entered the stable period. Generally, a complete-structured forest has been formed. The internal soil and biological environment are improving. Both the coverage and the species type are no longer in the mobile sand stage, and now in the semi fixed sand stage. There is an obvious transition trend towards the fixed sand stage. Our 0708 plot has positive effect on improving environment and reducing wind erosion.

    林地保存率 survival rate

    成活率始终高于《造林技术规程》中规定的旱区纯林造林成活率70%的技术标准。

    This survival rate is higher than technical benchmark of 70% survival rate of afforestation in arid regions stipulated in afforestation technical regulations.

    平均树高 average height

    在2018-2019年,该林地整体树高生长基本达到峰值,进入生长稳定期

    In 2018-2019, the overall height growth of the forest basically reached the peak. This forest entered the stable growth period.

    覆盖率 coverage rate

    0708林地已经成为一个具备完整结构的森林。

    0708plot has already become a forest with complete structure.

    生物多样性 biodiversity

    多年生沙生植物形成优势种说明林地植被特征已经从流动沙地阶段脱离。多年生草本植物和旱生灌木侵入并形成了一定的规模,说明林地正在从半流动沙地向半固定沙地过渡
    Perennial psammophytes become dominant species means this land is no longer in the mobile sand stage. Perennial herbs and xerophytic shrubs invaded and formed a large scale, which manifests the land is transiting from semi-mobile sand land to semi-fixed sandy land.

  • 联系我们 Contact Us

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  • 邮箱 Email

    info@mtpchina.org

    + 86 21 6352 3580

    电话 Telephone

    +86 21 6352 3580

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